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The Axial Skeleton

The Axial Skeleton

This consists of the ;

  • skull,
  • the sternum,
  • ribs,
  • the vertebral column.

The Skull

  • The skull is made up of cranium and facial bones.
  • The cranium; encloses and protects the brain.
  • It is made up of many bones joined together by immovable joints.
  • The facial bones consists of the upper and lower jaws.
  • At the posterior end of the cranium are two smooth rounded protuberances, the occipital condyles.
  • These condyles articulate with the atlas vertebra to form a hinge joint, which permits the nodding of the head.

 Sternum and ribs –

  • They form the rib-cage.
  • The rib-cage encloses the thoracic cavity protecting delicate organs such as the heart and lungs.
  • The ribs articulate with the vertebral column at the back and the sternum at the front.