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Movable Joints

Bones of Fore-limbs

Pectoral girdle

  • Pectoral girdle is made of scapula, coracoid and clavicle.
  • A cavity known as glenoid cavity occurs at the apex of the scapula.
  • The humerus of the fore limb fits into this cavity.
  • The clavicle is a curved bone connecting the scapular to the sternum.



  • Humerus is found in the upper arm.
  • It articulates with the scapula at the glenoid cavity of the pectoral girdle and forms a ball and socket joint.

Ulna and radius

  • These are two bones found in the forearm.
  • The ulna has a projection called olecranon process and a sigmoid notch which articulates with the humerus.

Bones of hind limb

Pelvic Girdle

  • The pelvic girdle consists of two halves fused at the pubic symphysis.
  • Each half is made up of three fused bones:
  • the ilium,
  • ischium
  • Each half has cup-shaped cavity for the acetabulum for articulation with the head of the femur.
  • Between the ischium and pubis is an opening obturator foramen where spinal nerves, blood vessels and a tough inflexible connective tissues pass.
  • The ilium, ischium and pubis are fused to form the innominate bone.


The Femur

  • The femur is the long bone joining the pelvic girdle and the knee.
  • The head of the femur articulates with acetabulum forming the ball and socket joint at the hip.
  • The femur has a long shaft.
  • At the distal end it has condyles that articulate with the tibia to form a hinge joint at the knee.
  • The patella covers the knee joint and prevents the upward movement of the lower leg.

Tibia and Fibula

  • The tibia is a large bone, and the fibula a smaller bone is fused to it on the distal part.
  • In humans the tibia and fibula are clearly distinguishable.

Joints and Movement

  • A joint is a connection between two or more bones.
  • Joints provide articulation between bones making movement possible.
  • However some joints do not allow any movement e.g. the joints, between bones of the skull.
  • Movable joints are of three main types:

Gliding joint

  • g., joints which occur between the vertebrae wrists and ankles.
  • The ends of the bones that make the joint are covered with cartilage.
  • The bones are held together by tough ligaments.

     Synovial joint

  • The joint is enclosed by fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid into the synovial cavity.
  • The synovial fluid lubricates the joint.
  • They are called synovial joints.
  • They include hinge joint and ball and socket joint.



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